Digital Photography 101 for Beginners

Unlike film, digital photography provides a wide variety of endless possibilities. This article will serve as a digital photography 101 course introducing you to the basics as well as how to prepare for your improvements in the craft. One of the biggest benefits of digital photography is the fact that you have no need to carry around film! If you don’t like a picture, you can delete it instantly.Long gone are the days where you had to wait days, if not weeks, to see if your photos came out! This leads to the first digital photography 101 lesson…Take Lots of Pictures! One of the best digital photography tips that you can start using is to start taking more pictures. Often times I see tourists taking pictures and am amazed at how few pictures they take. They could be in front of one of the most amazing locations in the world and be done after seven pictures!Take a lesson from the professional photographers, take lots of pictures and get as much coverage as possible. The more photos you take, the more likely you’ll get a few photos that are true “keepers” for years to come.It’s Not Film, Use Digital Photography 101 For Your Advantage!After taking a photo, be sure to use your digital camera for what it’s worth! View the photo, look at the exposure and see if it needs adjusting before going and shooting more photos. If you have an SLR or higher quality camera most likely it will come with a histogram that will show you exactly what you need to change exposure-wise. In addition, you can zoom in and see if your main subject of interest is focused properly or not.Digital photography provides us with a wide variety of tools to ensure that our photos are properly being taken. Many newer camera models have cool features that make focusing easier than ever. In addition, certain built in modes will allow for a white balance change as well as compensation for certain lighting situations.Use all of these settings to your advantage! The best way to do this is to get to know your cameras features as well as possible. Run through the manual a few times and experiment with the different controls.Edit Your Photos!In the past with film, for many amateurs and hobbyists the photo taking experience ended after the photos were developed by some developing company. With digital, the possibilities barely start after we upload the images on our computers. Photoshop and other photo editing software now allows us to edit our photos with our creativity being our own limitation. If you had some camera setting errors such as poor exposure you can now easily correct it with the push of a few buttons! You can even get rid of annoying things in the background of your photos like an annoying tourist!

Requirements and Advantages of Developing Mobile Websites For Automotive Dealerships

Mobile websites provide a whole new dimension to automotive dealerships to consolidate their position among the potential customers. Mobile websites present good opportunities to automotive dealers by increasing their visibility, directly targeting specific customers, and generating quality leads. These websites are optimized for mobile viewing ensuring maximum user-friendliness and satisfaction creating a direct impact on customers. The customers can view the inventory and services offered by automotive dealers, and search for new and used cars on such websites.Requirements:
The mobile websites need to satisfy various parameters to ensure that it gives quality user experience, is reliable and accessible.Website Load Time
Faster mobile website load time ensures that the prospective customers will have to wait for less time and can browse more thereby increasing the chances of lead generation. Faster load time adds to the overall user experience and significantly impacts the potential customer. Providing additional bandwidth can help improve the website load time. Providing quick information ensures that customers are retained and does not jump off to other website.Site Navigation
Simplicity in mobile website navigation is a rewarding experience for the car buyers. Easy navigation helps customers to find information quickly suiting their needs. Optimized website navigation provides customers with specific requirements that they are looking for. Easy navigation to inventory pages, coupons, contact forms, and directions provides a superior user experience. Efficient navigation enhances the usability of the website and allows customers to search the inventory effortlessly similar to automotive dealer’s website. The customers can conduct inventory search in website with specific information like model, make, year, color, price, and trim.Web Page Layout
A good mobile website page layout helps in effective presentation of the dealer information. Effective information presentation enables customers to use the website easily and quickly. Information about new and used car inventory, services offered by dealers and more can be effectively incorporated in mobile screen space for easy viewing by customers. Web page layout especially designed for such website ensures better presentation of content and thereby increases chances of sales and lead generation.Advantages:
Automotive dealers can effectively leverage the power of mobile websites to tap the growing market of mobile web users.Improves Online Web Presence
With faster processors, faster download speeds, and more smartphone subscribers, the number of mobile web users is rapidly growing. It is essential for automotive dealers to have strong online web presence to ensure mobile web users segment is effectively targeted. Apart from PC based dealer website, mobile websites can enhance the online web presence of the dealer in this competitive market. As more potential customers nowadays access information on web through smartphones, they can also search for automotive dealer’s website. Thus, having a mobile website improves online web presence as customers can find dealer related information quickly.More Opportunities for Sales
Mobile websites help to target specific customers and provides more opportunities for sales by receiving quality leads. Better usability of website, faster load time, navigation, and good web page layout provides superior user experience thereby increasing the chances of lead conversion and improving sales. With the fast changing market trends, they help to tap emerging segments of customers and provide more opportunities for sales.Get Quality Leads
The main objective of maintaining online web presence is receiving quality leads. The mobile websites provides potential customers with easy access to automotive dealer information from anywhere and anytime thereby increasing the website traffic and bringing in more quality leads.An optimized mobile website for mobile users will grant automotive dealers a competitive advantage by increasing their brand awareness in a positive way. They are also an excellent communication channel to explore new markets and generate more revenue.

Kitchen Improvement With Amerock Cabinet Pulls With Antique Brass Or Oil Rubbed Finish

Amerock, one of the leading brand names in the cabinet hardware market, presents a whole new series of antique brass ware pulls that can entirely transform the value of your interiors. Whichever furniture material you use, you can reface its look and style by fixing the right kind of hardware. People always associate the beauty of their interiors with the quality of furniture and the cost of the materials used. But today’s remodeling or refashioning techniques and ideas have replaced this conventional belief. Today, anyone can have a great interior afforded at an economic budget. And when it comes to interior makeover of your kitchen, it is all about making over your cabinets, doors and handles. This makes your designing or redesigning jobs more specific. You can further narrow your list of items required by concentrating on modeling your kitchen just by installing great cabinet hardware. To this end, Amerock can answer all your designing doubts because it understands all your needs better than anyone else, even your interior designer. So, all you need to do is to inspect the wide range of product segments offered by the company.Various online portals and stores have well satisfied our needs for better interior solutions. Amerock is also well known in its online circle with a wide assortment of products displayed through its official website. Now let us take a look into some of the features of Amerock that sets it well apart from its competitors. Amerock has always set new trends by introducing most fashionable and elegant designer hardware. Special emphasis on fashion, both traditional and contemporary is one of the main attractions of Amerock. These products are created by some of the best designer artists in the industry who has experience in making legendary Art Deco hardware.Quite in demand for its metal pulls, handles and door knobs, Amerock has a special range of brass products made to reflect the olden ornate artworks. The unique finger pulls called Nature’s Splendor is a true medieval beauty and it can go well with all types of wooden or plywood cabinets. It comes with a unique weathered brass finish that strangely adds to its aesthetic appeal and antiquity. Then there are appliance pulls made out of solid brass in varying sizes ranging from 8 to 18 inches. There are cast brass drawer pulls with classic as well as modernized traditional patterns. Modern patterns have a rather polished finish, but the weathered patterns are well engraved with antique designs.If you are intending to have a modernized impression for your kitchen, there is a collection of ultra stylish cup pulls and oil rubbed knobs and handles that are both durable as well as cost efficient. They are lightweight and suitable for plastic as well as laminate cabinets.

My Tips on Improving Your Finances for Life

There is no way to avoid dealing with money and finances these days. Therefore you should try to learn as much as possible to help you make good financial decisions and to increase your confidence about money.When you make a budget, it should be realistic regarding your income and spending habits. Be sure to include all of your income such as alimony, child support, rental income, or any other. Always use your net income not your gross earnings in these calculations. Once you have the numbers, you can consider how to adjust your spending to stay within your income range. To maintain your budget never exceed your incoming cash flow.The next step is to total up your expenses, and you should make a list of all monthly expenses. Your list should document each and every expense that you have whether it expense, spontaneous or just a one time expense. Remember that this list needs to have a complete breakdown of your costs. Be sure to add in expenses that you have from restaurant dinners and fast food as well as grocery bills. Reduce expenses linked to your cars, such as gas and insurance. If you have payments that you make quarterly or less frequently, divide them up to reflect a monthly payment. Make sure you include incidental expenses, for instance, baby sitters or storage unit rentals. Try to have the most accurate list possible.Now that you have a good idea of your income and expenditures, you can start planning a new budget. Look at each expenditure on your list, and decide what you could do without. If you normally buy coffee from a cafe, calculate how much money you would save on a weekly basis if you bought it from McDonald’s instead, or made it at home. Exactly what and how much you are willing to compromise is completely up to you. The first step is identifying expenses that are not necessary so you can use the money for something else.If your utility bills are rising, you may want to upgrade your appliances to save some money. Upgrading to well-fitted double-glazed windows, for example, can reduce your heating bill dramatically. Besides you can repair any leaky pipes and only run the dishwasher with a full load.Swap old, inefficient appliances for those that use less energy. Although doing so may cost you some money upfront, over the long-term you will save a fair penny on your utility bills. Unplug the appliances you do not need. In time you will notice significant savings in your energy consumption.You can make a significant decrease in your heating and cooling bills by improving your insulation, as well as the roof above it. Insulation or roofing issues can be very costly, as maintaining a regular temperature in the home can be expensive. If you invest in the upgrades, it will save you a lot of money in the long run.Using these tips not only saves you money, but it also helps you start bringing your budget under control. An expensive upgrade can save a lot of money in lowering electricity or water bills. This is one way that you can make your budget more reliable.

How to Work Online From Home and Earn Money Online, Work at Home Making Money Now

There are many different and varied ways of earning money whilst online, and if all used suitably and correctly you could easily make a living just working at home using the Internet. With some of the online jobs, perseverance will be the key: don’t just give up after a few days of answering paid surveys when you get frustrated seeing your account balance still sitting empty. Simply put, these methods of earning money online are guaranteed to work, but you must be a patient person. Don’t expect instant results, and don’t simply expect to sit back and watch the money roll in; nothing in life is this simple, you have to put a lot of work into things before you start to see any positive developments.One of the first things you should do is to join a free paid survey website. There are several well known paid survey sites that are completely free to join and use, and upon entering some simple questions on their website you should start getting emailed surveys, usually around 3 or 4 times a week. Complete these surveys and eventually your account balance will get updated (this isn’t instant, so don’t panic when you appear to have earned no money as usually it takes a week or so to be included in your earnings). A paid survey completed will earn you around £4 from about 30 minutes work. If you complete around 4 in a week, then this is £16 a week from paid surveys. Obviously not a large amount, but if you were to join a second, or a third paid survey site, then you could be doubling or tripling your earnings. Potentially you could be earning £48 a week from about 4 or 5 hours work. This is a payout rate of about £9 an hour which isn’t too bad. Any of the surveys completed are usually multiple choice, and are very simple to complete. Sometimes they are even enjoyable, involving watching clips from the latest movie trailers and giving relevant feedback.Another simple but effective little earner is writing product reviews online. There are a few sites that pay people to write online product reviews, and I really recommend that you join each of these paid to review sites. They are completely free to join and use and you can usually earn around 3 or £4 per review written. If the review is of a very good quality you might also receive part of a prize fund at the end of the month, which is usually around £10 extra per review written.After joining a free paid review website, you should decide on a product to review. There are thousands of products listed on the website, including various items such as foodstuffs, toiletries, computer games, DVD players, websites, restaurants, etc. When you have decided and located a product to review, write the review and post it on the website. You earn money every time another user reads and then rates one of your reviews – so make sure you read and rate lots of other members’ reviews in the hope that they return the favour. I’ve estimated that you can earn around £4 per hour on a paid to review website, you could spend around 30-40minutes writing a top review and then 25 minutes or so reading and rating other members’ reviews. The best thing about the paid review websites are that they are very similar, and they allow reviews posted on one website to be posted on the next. So if you write a review on one site, you can copy and paste it on to the next, doubling your earnings. Therefore I think you could probably earn on average around £6 per hour at a paid review website.Another of the ways to earn money online is by using a cashback website. Usually with a cashback website the only way to earn money is by spending money: you get cash back every time you make a transaction online. However you can earn money just joining free websites, all you have to do is complete some forms online to sign up to the free sites. I recommend creating a new free email account, as you will receive quite a lot of junk emails from joining these sites. There is around £30 to earn from free to join websites, and although this wont take you long to get through there are easily another 5 or 6 cashback websites you can use, and can do exactly the same thing with. This could earn you around £15 per hour, although it won’t last forever.Cashback websites also have another section, usually called the “recurring points” part of the site. This is where you can click links and advertisements to other websites and earn money for doing so. You usually earn around 8pence per link clicked, and in a few minutes you can click all the links (usually around 10 links). Some links can be clicked more than once per day, so usually you can earn around £1.50 at each cashback website in about 5 minutes. Say you join 5 cashback websites; this could earn you £7.50 in half an hour, every day. Not bad for simply clicking a few website links every day.Paid forum posting is another way of earning money online. Some website owners are willing to pay people to post messages in specific online forums; this is because it allows them to advertise their own personal website in the signature part of your username. Every time you make a post on a forum (if allowed) your signature usually follows you. This is a free piece of space that you can use to write something or advertise a website link. It is a very valuable piece of space that can be used for free advertising, and so the more posts that you can submit then the more free advertising is available. It can also help the website owner when it comes to the search engine rankings, giving that website hundreds more backlinks. Paid forum posting usually pays around 10pence per post submitted, and so with 100 posts you can earn £10. This can easily be achieved in 1 or 2 hours, thus earning a rate of £5 per hour spent doing paid forum posting.Working online doing data entry jobs is another way to earn money online, though it is often very hard finding legitimate data input jobs on the Internet. Most of them are scams, and will try and charge you just for joining, or the information about joining. Never pay for any kind of job seen online. Usually you can find simple data entry jobs at webmaster forums, as some people don’t have the time or can’t be bothered to do simple but boring data entry. You should expect to earn around £6 per hour spent entering data, but this really depends on the job that you find as it really depends on the employer.Usually most of the data entry jobs found on web forums will only last an hour or two, so they aren’t the most reliable form of income though you can normally find several data input jobs advertised on website-owner forums.Mystery shopping isn’t strictly a job which you can do directly from your computer, though you will need to find and apply for a mystery shopping position using the Internet. Mystery shopping will involve going to a shop or premise with a view of purchasing an item or service, and then going away and reviewing the whole experience. You need to report back to your employer with your findings, and on doing so you can expect to earn around £15 for your troubles. This works out at around £7 an hour, although with Mystery Shopping it is hard to do it constantly and regularly. Don’t expect regular mystery shopping opportunities, you might be lucky enough to be invited once a week or less.Online betting is another method of earning money online, but this way doesn’t involve any risks or gambles. Arbitrage is a way of betting so that you back all possible outcomes of an event, and will always end up with a profit from doing so. It involves scanning through odds at online bookmakers, and when you find odds that are higher at the bookmaker than at an exchange, then you have found yourself an arb. This is the most time consuming part of the job, and thankfully there are free forums that can be used where by people will post arbs for others to use. Arbing also involves betting large amount of money; the more you can afford to bet, the more profit you can expect. To earn any kind of decent money from arbing then you need a few thousand pounds spare which you are free to invest for the period that you are arbing. An example of an arb could be odds on Man Utd to win at 2.5 at Ladbrokes, and odds to lay Man Utd to win at 2.3 at Betfair (an exchange). If you place £1000 on Man Utd to win at Ladbrokes and you lay this at Betfair with £1000, if Man Utd win you have £1500 profit at Ladbrokes and a loss of £1300 at Betfair. This is an overall profit of £200 just from one arb found, which is very good going from just a few minutes work. Unfortunately arbs like this don’t come along very often, and when they do they don’t last long. You can expect to earn around £5 per hour spent arbing, but this depends on the amount of arbs you are able to discover.The final method of earning money online that we will discuss here is by advertising on free webspace. Anyone can join the Blogger website for free, and can post information on to their own blog. Then they can apply for the Google AdSense program directly on the website, and so they can start earning money just from adverts placed on their free blog site. If you are able to upload interesting, unique web content and manage to get regular traffic to your website then you can expect to earn around £5 or £10 a day from your free website, which isn’t bad going for minimal effort. Obviously the hardest part of this is managing to get people to come to your website, and tempting them into clicking the Google adverts. However if you do manage all of this, you can expect to be earning at least £5 a day from adverts placed on your website.Overall there is a lot of free money available to earn using the Internet. Even from the paid review website you could be earning around £5 an hour and this is just one way to earn money online. You can also be earning around £50 a week from paid survey sites, and then around £40 a week from cashback websites recurring clicks. Then you could be earning about £50 a week from paid forum posting, and then about £30 a week from online data entry jobs. Then there’s the online arbing, which can earn you an endless amount of money. Anyone can easily be earning £150 a week from arbing. Then on top of this you can be earning money from your free webspace, which could be around £70 a week. This is a grand total of around £400 a week, which is an excellent amount of money considering the little effort required working online from home.

100 Financing Investment Property

100 financing of investment properties refers to 100% financing from outside for your investment in real estate. Funds that are brought from one’s own savings, on loan from friends or relatives are in a way not much different from capital whereas real debt or Investment property financing comes from financial institutions. These entities – banks, mortgage firms and lending organizations like credit unions — lend funds to the applicant on the trust of a collateral security or based on the income, credit-worthiness and repayment capacity of the individual. Even if these criteria are satisfactory, an investment property financing institution may ask to be shown the business plan of how the applicant means to generate income using the pieces of property he or she means to buy and consequently pay off the loan or conclude the mortgage. The lender has the right to know how the business is going to be conducted because the revenues of this business determine how fast the loan is going to be repaid. With the turn in the economy, 100% financing investment property has almost been done away with.100 financing investment propertyIn the United States, there are three credit bureaus, Equifax, Experian and Transunion, that maintain records of the lines of credit extended to each individual and how they are being handled. The credit reports formulated by these bureaus reflect how many credit card accounts a person has, how many times he or she has defaulted in payment or gone over the credit limit; other forms of financing availed by the individual such as home mortgage, auto finance or student loans, are also listed. Lenders and creditors have access to these credit reports and use them to check if an applicant is worth the risk of being given a loan. The exact features that point to an applicant as being risky can be found out after a professional analysis of one’s credit report. A high Debt to Income ratio and loan to value ratio are some of the red-flags. These areas have to be improved so as not be saddled with an exorbitant rate of interest and terms that are not favorable to the borrower. Some unfavorable terms are floating interest rates that send the finance charges through the roof upon a single defaulted payment. To prevent this eventuality, it is better to choose a deal with a fixed (flat) interest rate or a low ceiling rate on the interest rate slab.Lending fees, high interest rates, discount points (another form of lending fees paid upfront to prevent the interest from racing up) can actually break the bank. In fact, there are many cases in which discount points have been deceptive and one ends up paying more for them, than the actual interest (finance charges) that would have been paid if the interest rates did go up. To prevent such goof ups, it is a good idea to take estimates from two or three lending organizations, compare their offerings and then choose the one that appeals most to one.The worst pitfall to guard against is when some lender tells you that you are eligible for 100% financing of investment property. Those idyllic days are over. In fact, they are past their sell by date because there were not so idyllic. There may be such plans available on subsidy from the government for the exclusive use of first time homeowners who belong to the low income group. But this does not include investment property dealers. Traditional methods of 100% financing are now called owner financing and are still available but they are not an attractive option. It is not surprising that requests for owner financing are viewed with suspicion of default by lenders and therefore, that avenue is best avoided.

SR&ED Tax Credit Financing – The Only Two Things You Need to Know About SR&ED Finance

SR&ED Tax Credit Financing is somewhat misunderstood, or in fact not really considered by many Canadian business owners and financial managers in Canada. We use the word ‘considered ‘simply because many SRED claimants are not aware that their SR&ED claims can be financing as soon as they are filed – in some cases prior to filing!So let’s return to our topic – what are the two things you need to know about financing your SRED tax credit. We’ll keep it simple -1. You have to have a SR&ED claim to obtain financing for the claim!2. A SRED financing claim is in fact similar to any business financing application – frankly it’s quite simpler and more focused!Is that it? Yes, it’s as simple as that. SR&ED tax credit financing is one of the most unique ways to bring valuable cash flow and working capital back into your firm. Just the very nature of SRED itself suggests that your firm relies heavily on the credit to recover the capital you have spent under the government’s quite generous non repayable grant.So let’s return to our point # 1 – to finance a claim, you need a claim. The SRED program in Canada is the governments rebate; in effect it’s a grant, back to Canadian business for any investment you make in research and development. More and more information is coming out everyday from government and private sources which suggest that many firms who are eligible for the program either aren’t aware of it, or even more disappointing, don’t know how to go about preparing and filing a claim. We are often amazed when some clients infer that it’s ‘too much trouble ‘to prepare a SRED claim.A couple of points can be made on this subject. We have met a small handful, and we repeat small handful! Of clients over the years who prepare their own filings. This of course is possible, legal, and in some business owners minds ‘cost effective. The hard reality is that most firms don’t have the technical and financial know how to complete a claim on their own. (Apologies to the firms which successfully prepare a file their own claims – you know who you are!)The majority of claims in the SRED area are prepared by what is known as SRED consultants. We tell clients that these consultants are high specialized, are up to date on current government SRED and accounting matters, and in most cases work on contingency – meaning that they prepare the claim at their own risk and time, and charge a fee which is totally based on success of the final claim approval. If Canadian business owners and financial managers don’t choose to pay a contingency fee then they can play a flat rate based on the SRED consultant’s time on the claim and filing. Naturally more often than not the SRED fee has to be paid as soon as the claim is completed, even if you still have to wait several months to a year to get your funds.More importantly, as it relates to the financing of the SRED claim, a claim tends to be more financeable when it is prepared by a reputable consultant in this area. And in fact when you claim is financed, either at time of filing or prior, the SRED consultant can also be paid in full or in part out of the financing.So the bottom line on our point # 1 is simply – make yourself aware of the program if you are not, prepare a solid claim with the use of a reputable consultant, and be knowledgeable that the claim can be financed during preparation or at time of filing.Let’s move on to point # 2- Clients ask, is it really that simple to finance a SR&ED tax credit. There is only one answer, which is of course yes. You should treat your SRED tax credit financing just as any other basic financing. Because this area of Canadian business financing is somewhat of a boutique are you should ensure you are working with a credible, trusted, and experienced advisor in this area.Let’s cover some of the very simple key basics around the financing of your claim. Most firms are eligible, under the program itself, to receive anywhere from 20-50% of your expenses in the R&D area. Your SRED claim will ultimately have a final value, which is made up of the federal and provincial portions combined. Let’s assume its 200,000.00 as an example. You and your accountant have filed your year end financials, and included a SRED claim of 200k. What happens now if you want to finance that claim. The reality is that you simply have to fill out a standard business financing application – just as if you were borrowing for any other matter. In our case the ‘collateral ‘, if we can call it that, it’s the SRED claim.Important to note hear that you are not incurring debt or creating a ‘ loan ‘ on the SRED – Your balance sheet stays intact, you are simply ‘ monetizing ‘ the SRED claim in order to generate working capital and cash flow now. Generally you receive approximately 70% of the claim as an advance, with the 30% held back and payable to yourself in full when you final claim is audited, approved, and that cheque from the government is ‘in the mail ‘! The financing feels itself, associated with the tax credit financing are deducted from that final 30% holdback. You can generally create a SRED loan for a period of a minimum of 60 days, but most SRED financing generally last from 3-12 months, depending on the size of your claim, its eligibility with CRA, and whether you are a first time filer.So whats our bottom line – it couldn’t be simpler:- Make yourself aware of this great program – prepare a proper claim with someone who is experienced
- If you are focused on cash flow and working capital needs consider financing your claim and directly monetizing this great program

There is an excessive amount of traffic coming from your Region.


Top Online Casino Payout Rates

Most all top online casinos voluntarily subject themselves to regular audits (usually monthly) by a qualified and reputable third party firm, such as Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC). These audits generally focus on two aspects of the online casino’s operations: their random number generator and their payout rates. The latter — payout rates — is the subject of this article.An online casino’s payout rates are displayed as a percentage — that being the percentage of incoming wagers that are paid out in winnings. As you can imagine, the higher the payout rates, the better. The top online casinos are often considered so, in part, precisely because they offer the highest payout rates.A top online casino with the highest payout rate in video poker may not have the best payout rate for slots. Payout rates vary within top online casinos for each individual game. If you’re planning on joining a top online casino for a specific game — be it poker, craps, baccarat, video poker, roulette, blackjack, slots, keno, or any other top online casino game — check the top online casino’s payout percentages for that specific game.Top Online Casino Payout Rates Overall: Grand Online Casino (98.42%), Golden Palace Online Casino (98.15%), Sands of the Caribbean (98.11%), USA Casino (98.09%), 32Red Casino (97.97%), Ladbrokes Casino (97.68%), Casino-on-Net (97.63%), InterCasino (97.13%).Top Online Casino Payouts for Slots: Slotland (98.00%), Casino Las Vegas (97.50%), Golden Palace Online Casino (97.18%), Royal Vegas Online Casino (96.59%), Aztec Riches Casino (96.51%), Yukon Gold Casino (96.31%), Shark Casino (96.49%), Casino Kingdom (96.15%), Ladbrokes Casino (96.03%).Top Online Casino Payouts for Video Poker: Jackpots in a Flash Casino (99.53%), Lucky Nugget Online Casino (99.11%), Crazy Vegas Casino (99.07%), Lucky Emperor Casino (99.03%), 7 Sultan Casino (99.00%), Royal Vegas Online Casino (98.77%), Swiss Casino (98.70%), Spin Palace (98.60%), RiverBelle Casino (98.59%), Roxy Palace Online Casino (98.58%).Top Online Casino Payout at Table Games: Casino Kingdom (99.62%), Mummys Gold Casino (99.52%), Aztec Riches Casino (99.22%), 3 Diamond Casino (99.19%), 49er Casino (99.10%), Casino Domain (99.01%), Challenge Casino (98.98%), Crazy Vegas Casino (98.91%), Cherry Casino (98.69%), Captain Cooks (98.57%).Top online casinos that get their payout rates audited will almost always publish the results of each audit on their website for anyone — member or non-member — to view. They’ll even keep archives of all their past audits, also open to public viewing.******

Intellectual Property & Cyber Crimes

Intellectual property rights are the legal rights that cover the privileges given to individuals who are the owners & inventors of a work, & have created something with their intellectual creativity. Online content always needs to be protected so we can’t separate Intellectual Property & Cyber Crimes. In cyberspace, sometimes one person makes a profit by using another person’s creative work without his or her consent. This a violation of privacy, & it is protected by IPR. In today’s world besides cyberbullying, & fraud, cybercrimes also includes infringement of copyrights & trademarks of various businesses & other organizations.

Keywords : Intellectual Property, Cyber Crime, Cyber Squatting, Hacking, Phishing, Vishing

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property means the ownership of property except real estate or personal property, as these are the outputs of human mind or spirit. Intellectual property rights are the legal rights of intellectual activity in the field of industry, science, literature & arts. These rights have a limitation by time.

The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) laws in India are divided inti five main categories: trademarks, copyrights, patents, industrial designs & geographical indications.

India provides protection for intellectual property rights as per with its obligations under the TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) agreement of WTO.

Other than the civil solutions & damages, the police & other such authorities have the rights to take action against breaking the terms of law in case of intellectual property. The petitions for violations of IPR will be filed & tried in courts just like any other suits. Appeals are filed in the courts against management & administrative decisions relating to IPR.

Intellectual Property Law in India broadly covers the following areas:

Patents, Plant Variety Protection, Geographic Information, Traditional Knowledge, Copyright, Trade Marks, Trade Secrets & Industrial Designs.

Intellectual property rights have become the highlighted subject because of India’s entry in the WTO & signing the “TRIPS” agreement. Long before this agreement was signed in 1995, there were several treaties dealing with IPRs, such as copyrights, trademarks, patents, & other rights. The most well-known of them are:

• The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of March 20, 1883

• Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary & Artistic Works of September 9,1886

• International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms & Broadcasting Organizations done at Rome on October 26, 1961.

• Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks of April 14, 1891,

These all treaties have been periodically revised. But it was found that these treaties lacked an effective enforcement system by which parties to any of these treaties could ensure compliance with the terms of the treaties by other parties. Also the change in the pattern & pace of international trade highlighted the need for greater cohesion in the matter of mutual obligations & more precision in the description of the scope of the rights. TRIPS provided to its members an opportunity to redefine the content & scope of the rights.

TRIPS required first its signatory members, including India, updated their domestic legislation regarding the protection of those rights to the standards stipulated by TRIPS, which was the minimum standard of protection. That updating is a continuous process & while India has brought about several legislative changes into conformity with the requirements of TRIPS, some work still remains to be done.

Proponents of unrestricted file sharing point out how file sharing has given people broader & quicker access to media, has increased exposure to new & upcoming artists, & has considerably reduced the costs of transferring media (including less environmental damage). Supporters of restrictions on file sharing argue that we must protect the income of our artists & other people who work to create our media.

There is also a similar debate over intellectual property rights in case of software ownership. The two exactly opposite views are for closed source software distributed under restrictive licenses or for free & open – source software. The argument can be made that restrictions are required because companies would not invest weeks & months in development if there is no incentive for revenue generated from sales & licensing fees. A counter argument to this is that standing on shoulders of giants is far cheaper than when the giants don’t hold IP rights. Some advocated for open source are of belief that all programs should be available to anyone who wants to study them.

One reason for IP laws is to allow IP creators to benefit from their work/profession. If artists create sketch after months of hard work & labor, then they deserve credit & income from selling or exhibiting them. If a business comes up with an attractive marketing logo, then no other businesses should be allowed to use that logo for product promotion purposes without permission.

People also view protecting IP as a method of promoting creativity. If no one is allowed to copy another person’s work without permission, then we are encouraging creativity for everybody.

Cyber Crimes

Cybercrimes are unlawful acts where the computer is used either as a tool or a target or both. It is any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems & the data processed by them, or any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession & offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network.

In recent surveys, it has been found that people are very cautious when it comes to documents that contain personal information on them by completely destroying them or assuring that they are safely stored.

The various types of cybercrimes can be classified as :

Cyber Stalking: It is a crime in which the attacker harasses a victim using electronic communication, such as e-mail or instant messaging, or messages posted to a website or a discussion group. A cyber stalker relies upon the anonymity afforded by the internet to allow them to stalk their victim without being detected.

Cyber stalking can be terribly frightening. It can destroy careers, credit, self-esteem, self-image, & friendships. It can even lead the victim into far greater physical danger when combined with real-world stalking. Victims of domestic violence are most of the time cyber stalking victims. One needs to be aware that technology can make cyber stalking easy. Spyware software can be used to monitor each & everything happening on your computer or mobile, giving tremendous amount of power & information to cyber stalkers.

Hacking: It means gaining an unauthorized access to data in a computer. It describes the fast development of new programs or the reverse engineering of already existing software to make the code better & more efficient. It also refers to expand the capabilities of any electronic device; to use them beyond the original intentions of the manufacturer.

Various terms like cracker, hacker & ethical hacker are used. Hacker are persons who enjoy learning the details of computer systems & expand their capabilities whereas, cracker is a person who uses his hacking skills for offensive purposes. Ethical hackers are usually security professionals who apply their hacking skills for defensive purposes.

Phishing: Phishing is a technique of fraudulently obtaining private information. In this the phisher sends an e-mail that appears to come from a legitimate business – a bank or credit card company requesting verification of information & warning of some dire consequence if it is not provided. The e-mail usually contains a link to a fraudulent web page that seems legitimate with company logos & content & has a form requesting everything from a home address to an ATM card’s PIN. Phishing involves false emails, chats, or websites designed to impersonate real systems with the goal of capturing sensitive data.

Vishing: It is also known as Phone Phishing. It uses an interactive voice response (IVR) system to recreate a legitimate sounding copy of a bank or other institution’s system. The victim is prompted (via a phishing e-mail) to call in to the bank via a number provided in order to verify information. A typical system will reject log-ins continually, ensuring the victim enters PINs or passwords multiple times, often disclosing several different passwords. More advanced systems transfer the victim to the attacker posing as a customer service agent for further questioning.

Baiting: It is like real-world Trojan Horse that uses physical media & relies on the curiosity or greed of the victim. It involves dangling something you want to entice you to take an action the criminal desires. It can be in the form of a music or movie download on a peer-to-peer site. Then, once the device is used or downloaded, the person or company’s computer gets infected with malicious software allowing the criminal to advance into your system.

Social Engineering: It is the act of obtaining or attempting to obtain secure data by conning an individual into revealing secure information. It is successful because its victims innately want to trust other people & are naturally helpful. The victims of social engineering are trickled into releasing information that they do not realize, will be used to attack a computer network. Criminals use social engineering tactics because it is usually easier to exploit natural inclination to trust than it is to discover ways to hack your software. As the saying goes, it is much easier to fool someone into giving you their password than it is for you to try hacking their password.

Reverse Social Engineering: It is a person-to-person attack in which an attacker convinces the target that he or she has a problem or might have a certain problem in the future & that he, the attacker, is ready to help you to solve the problem. Next, he gains the trust of the target & obtains access to sensitive information.

Cross-site scripting: It is a code injection security attack targeting web applications that delivers malicious, client-side scripts to a user’s web browser for execution. XSS attacks enable attackers to inject client-side scripts into web pages viewed by other users. A cross-site scripting vulnerability can be used by attackers to bypass access controls like same-origin policy.

Bot Nets: It is a group of computers controlled without their owner’s knowledge & used to send spam or make denial of service attacks. Malware is used to hijack the individual computers, also known as “zombies” & send directions through them. They are best known in terms of large spam networks, frequently based in the former Soviet Union.

A zombie or bot is often created through an Internet port that has been left open & through which a small Trojan horse program can be left for future activation. At a certain time, the zombie army “controller” can unleash the effects of the army by sending a single command, from an Internet Relay Channel (IRC) site. The computers that form a botnet can be programmed to redirect transmissions to a specific computer, such as a website that can be closed down by having to handle too much traffic – a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack or, in the case of spam distribution, to many computers.

Cybersquatting: It means unauthorized registration & use of internet domain names that are similar to any business’s trademarks, service marks or company names.

Attack Vector: It is a path or means by which a hacker can gain access to a computer network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome. It includes viruses, e-mail attachments, web pages, pop-up windows, instant messages, chat rooms, & deception.

Identity Theft: It is the deliberate use of someone else’s identity, to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit & other benefits in the other person’s name, & to the other person’s disadvantage or loss.

Integration of Intellectual Property in Cyber Universe

Intellectual property & cyber security are interlinked because of their common goal to protect the interests of the global community. The safety of one guide the security of the other. But, protecting just one is still not enough as there are specialized threats exclusively targeting intellectual properties. Besides the cost related to the mitigation of cyberattacks, a large portion of losses come from compromised intellectual assets. Because of this, understanding the importance of protecting both cyber security & intellectual property is a necessary step to avoid potential damages.

Malicious programs like computer viruses or cyber threats, pose serious threats to the integrity of the data contained within digital platforms. In this digital age, intellectual property like patent details, technological prototypes, & trade secrets are mostly stored in the digital network. Exposing these files to competitors creates a considerable risk of losing competitive advantage.

Despite improvements in combating cybercrime & threats, IT security professionals are still struggling to fully secure their organization & protect against breaches with 61 percent claiming to have experienced one to six data breaches & three-fourth of breaches require disclosure, putting reputation at risk.

Data breaches are becoming more serious as cybercriminals continue to target intellectual property putting the reputation of company brand or individuals at risk & increasing financial liability.


With the technological advancement & vast amount of growth in cyber world, copyright & trademarks are not limited to the traditional intellectual property but have spread to intellectual property rights over the internet. Cyberspace is becoming a place for intellectual property rights violation. That’s why it has become important that people should be aware of the illegal usage of their websites & webpages.

Hi, This is Dr. Aniket Saxena from Bareilly (India). I am an IIM – B, IMF (US), NISM & EQUALIFI Certified Financial Analyst, AML Pro, & Business Management Expert with PDM, MTech Laws, M. Int’l Laws, GMBA, EMBA (IT), EMBA (BI), & MCA, having around 14 years of experience in successfully implementing investment & financial strategies to achieve individual & business success.